The Russian Stargate facility is a Russian military installation located in Siberia that was under the command of Colonel Sakolov. One of its original functions, prior to the Russian Stargate program, was as a classified, experimental power station. As Dr. Svetlana Markov revealed, the power station had ceased operations two years before the arrival of SG-1. (SG1: "Watergate")
From there, they carried out offworld missions, until one of them resulted in the Stargate being stuck permanently connected to an underwater Stargate on another planet, and the entire staff being mysteriously killed.
Dr. Svetlana Markov called SG-1 to resolve the situation; while on the base, Colonel Jack O'Neill, the leader of SG-1, found out that the base is where rogue NID agent Colonel Harold Maybourne was hiding, leaking information about the American Stargate program, following the exposure of his illegal offworld operations. (SG1: "Watergate", "Shades of Grey")
Eventually, Russia agreed to stop its Stargate program in exchange for the United States of America sharing technologies acquired via its own; the Alpha Gate was later lent to Stargate Command and transported to Cheyenne Mountain after Anubis destroyed the Beta Gate. (SG1: "Redemption, Part 2")